PROMINENT RUSSIANS Nikolai Gogol

 

Nikolai Gogol   is a novelist and Russian writer began was born in 1809. He is regarded as most outstanding figures and founder of Russian realistic school in literature. Google was born in Ukraine where his first works were influenced by life and Ukrainian folklore in early time of his literary life.

Nikolai Gogol  in writing the short stories which obtained the acknowledgment of Russian literary entourage including Alexander after Nikolai Gogol  could gain famous and good reputation he began to write numerous of plays in which he wanted to criticize the Russian politics corruption. But he neglected his first trial in writing delirious play about imperial bureaucracy fearing of censorship on printed works. Nikolai Gogol owns a lot of works which are considered as eternal literature. In that article we will recognize two of works by most important and outstanding works by this great author.

The Overcoat” is a story by a Russian author Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol. Even though most romantics place their main characters on prestigious places in the society Gogol did just the opposite. short story has few pages. As it is  considered as most important work by Google.. With this story Gogol gave his critic of the society and he judged harshly inhumanity and people’s bad behavior. In the end Gogol does express some hope that the human conscious will save him. Story tells of life and death of reverend board member  Akaky Akakievich  the poor man, he is writer and publisher in Russia city of saint Petersburg where nobody shows any respect for him despite his devotion to work  ” Akaky” wears a coat of Reth and he is often satirized by his work mates. This is one of the worst matters that could happen to any human being which make him wish to be swallowed alive  downward by the ground as pushed him to mend his old coat as he took it to tailor “Petrovich” to renew it. But tailor tells him that his coat cannot be mended and he should buy new coat with a cost more expensive than “Akay” low salary. That pushed him to force himself to live within humble budget to provide money to be able to buy the coat later on. He received unexpected great incentive along with his salary as he was fortunately saved by that and get enough money to buy new coat. Here i will let my dear reader for acquainting with the remainder of the story and what will happen to its protagonist after buying new coat .

nikolai-gogol-1

this story reflected the sad humanity a picture of society at that time till present as it seems some of aspects have changed but the most important aspects did not change a lot. Story lines take you in a journey for cruel scientist lived in silence under all offenses that he received it.. Also,  story criticized jealousy and arrogance of man and the impacts of that upon society. Nikolai Gogol imaged the coat in this story that could give this poor man the strength and strong push for life even his biggest ambition is to buy a coat.

The novel of (Dead Souls ) : may by at reading of the novel. You will think it is black novel, dark and brings frustration but on the contrary, your reading for this novel will bring you the psychological relief. It is very amusing and political novel, masterpiece really written by Google golden fingers as normally in remaining of his works.

“You can’t imagine how stupid the whole world has grown nowadays. The things these scribblers write! ”

Novel tells of mysterious man of the middle class called “Chichikov” try to build a special charisma for him by dazzling state officials in Russia at that time,  protagonist tries to build friendship relations with townspeople to execute his weird plan which is selling of “Dead Souls  to be more clear, the novel imaged the Russian society at the time in which Russia followed the rule of Slavery rule  Regarding the agriculture lands that is economic regime regards the class of peasants under the rule Of Feudalism and in state of slavery that was firstly appeared in Middle ages. Life of peasant under that rule not controlled by land owners but his work would be for owner and get paid very low .The number of peasants for each land could not be figured except in the period of housing calculations which is being done each ten years. Each peasant dies still registered as alive despite its death. So the owner is burdened with taxes and costs. Henceforth, Chichikov offered to give those lands such dead selves with very low price to be one of nobles and possessions owners

““Keep not money, but keep good people’s company.” “

. This novel imaged or the prosaic poem characters of Russian society and each one has its own pattern. Google told by it their appearance and their faults all accurate details beginning with too tiny things up to the most serious ones. Google burnt the second part of this novel at the time of writing because of religious issues.

Written by:  Magdy Raouf

 

 

PROMINENT RUSSIANS : Vissarion Belinsky

While talking about Russian intellectual l movement as poetry, novel, story and theatre. Figures shine who occupy a great room of acknowledgment for the audiences: Pushkin and its poems, Nikolai Gogol and his dead spirits, (Mikhail Lermontov ) and his time hero,  the existentialism  of Dostoyevsky in his lines, (Tolestoy) with his thinking and huge works. It seem natural that the communication exists between the author and reader who read his works as there is a special issue is not very apparent except for those who have interest in literary criticism and history of Russian literature and it’s historical path beginning from Borrow the First till the mid of nineteenth century. Novel and Russian story have to be proved correctly and continue   to complete the path of the universal literatures if it did not have a very strict critic refutes the literary history, its criticism, defects and its importance in society. Who did such kind of missions was a young man at the age of twenty three. His opinion was decisive as being able to testify for a writer or diminish from him. Any biography for destovosky does not begin except the quoting from this critic who speculated an emerging of novelist will have  real existence in near future. When the critic read the novel of Poor Folk (1845). for unknown young writer – and it was first work for (destokovksy) – said I talked here about  Vissarion Belinsky the critic of his age and one of grand Russian literary figures in the nineteenth century. Belinsky has certainly shaped many views of Russian intellectual l movement that remain prevalent, including a canon of authors and masterpieces. for instance, it was he who defended Lermontov’s 1840 novel, Geroi nashego vremeni (Hero of Our Time), as a daringly innovative work and who recognized Fyodor Dostoyevsky  supreme talent. (At the same time, he ranked Walter Scott and George Sand higher than Pushkin).

Reading for literature history and its refutation was very necessary at Belinsky because the nature of the existing society and what it produces from new cultural and social phenomena needs to reconsider a lot of matters as literature which had gone far away from society and people and remained limited to the noble and class classes. The era of Belinsky is the age of Napoleon attack against Russia who unified different people directions for a short period of time to resist against the colonization then it followed by instability in servitude regime and raising of social awareness. High appreciation for sacrifices that done by those slaves. More serious is that direct response for such changes represented in movement that was known as movement of Decemberians. New liberation movement represents as spontaneous result for such changes.

Vissarion_Grigorievich_Belinsky1

What is literature? What distinctiveness about it? Belinsky did not pose such questions? But he preferred directly to discuss history to examine the writings of poets and literayians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in an attempt to draw new path leads to the Excellency after decades of imitation. Belinsky who was influenced by haigelian philosophy in the first years of his youth. He published an article titled with the literary dreams. He preceded his counterparts of critics who offered services in this field but their contributions were very humble. Such contributions did not come up to level of how to rewrite the literary history. The twenty three years old guy was assigned with this mission. The importance of Belinsky criticism is that there is new aspects about literary theatre never existed before in other words the novel and story After Nikolai Gogol show up on Literary theatre in which his literature was described as superficial and fantasy for the modernity of such kind of literature.

The poetry was the tyrant. Even the novel if had existed previously in the works of Nikolai Gogol as it does not overreach its peculiar field relating the noble classes. In other words there is official literature obtaining the old literature maxims and cesarean general system. New literature represented by Gogol and his mate Boykin represents new unprecedented kind, Belinsky , with left tendency to extremism. He had to defend values which Google called for in his literature because they from bases for his moral beliefs to face such assaults especially the ones related the law of??? But how he defends it? To show the new role for the novel and story in literature of boshkin and Google who had to step behind to produce the previous production as perfect and serious then reach the demonstration of boshkin literature and Google and its importance in the new age.

There is an important note should be clarified: 

When Belinsky began to criticise literature that produced pre Pushkin time. He found multiple literary directions and productions did not come up to surface. There was common opinion that there was nothing called Russian literature existed pre Pushkin history but how did we reach that conclusion? This matter is not in need for perfect literary criticism but it should be reviewed from history angle in which it should demonstrate the social statuses, their criticism and literature criticism which was common at that time. Through his criticism for history, Belinsky declared his opinion that was supported by his analyses: there is no Russian literature at all pre grand Russian figure Alexander Pushkin era. The defects of absence for this literature was due the nature of Russian society formation which was not formed in a civil ways and nationally as well to be able to present artistic giving emerged from its self and its identity.

Belinsky did not survive long to watch the two polars that occupied the general literary scene in the midth of nineteenth century : Tolstoy and destovosky but he died and never a word was mentioned towards Tolestoy. I will induce the opinion of belinsky if he was prolonged just few years. As said previously in the introduction. Belinsky approved of the novel of the Poor for destovosky . In other words it bears the expressions of encouragement for author of the Poor. If the critic witnessed what the author of the poor. Tolestoy will raise from his name to show up the psychoanalysis and will occupy strong literary position . He will use his pen as bitter critic. Definitely he will send a message to the author of the poor. I believed from my point of view that he sing because Tolestoy  represents another jump for Belinsky ideas. So the idea of popular spirit for Belinsky in which Tolestoy found general intellectual frame much deeper by publishing it in his famous book what the Arts is?.

Finally The importance of Belinsky and his influence on Russian intellectual l movement can hardly be overestimated. He did not only show the way for literature to become a public force, but also turned to be a teacher and a leader for the young generation of writers.

Written by:  Magdy Raouf

PROMINENT RUSSIANS : Vissarion Belinsky

While talking about Russian intellectual l movement as poetry, novel, story and theatre. Figures shine who occupy a great room of acknowledgment for the audiences: Pushkin and its poems, Nikolai Gogol and his dead spirits, (Mikhail Lermontov ) and his time hero,  the existentialism  of Dostoyevsky in his lines, (Tolestoy) with his thinking and huge works. It seem natural that the communication exists between the author and reader who read his works as there is a special issue is not very apparent except for those who have interest in literary criticism and history of Russian literature and it’s historical path beginning from Borrow the First till the mid of nineteenth century. Novel and Russian story have to be proved correctly and continue   to complete the path of the universal literatures if it did not have a very strict critic refutes the literary history, its criticism, defects and its importance in society. Who did such kind of missions was a young man at the age of twenty three. His opinion was decisive as being able to testify for a writer or diminish from him. Any biography for destovosky does not begin except the quoting from this critic who speculated an emerging of novelist will have  real existence in near future. When the critic read the novel of Poor Folk (1845). for unknown young writer – and it was first work for (destokovksy) – said I talked here about  Vissarion Belinsky the critic of his age and one of grand Russian literary figures in the nineteenth century.Belinsky has certainly shaped many views of Russian intellectual l movement that remain prevalent, including a canon of authors and masterpieces. for instance, it was he who defended Lermontov’s 1840 novel, Geroi nashego vremeni (Hero of Our Time), as a daringly innovative work and who recognized Fyodor Dostoyevsky  supreme talent. (At the same time, he ranked Walter Scott and George Sand higher than Pushkin).

 

Reading for literature history and its refutation was very necessary at Belinsky because the nature of the existing society and what it produces from new cultural and social phenomena needs to reconsider a lot of matters as literature which had gone far away from society and people and remained limited to the noble and class classes. The era of Belinsky is the age of Napoleon attack against Russia who unified different people directions for a short period of time to resist against the colonization then it followed by instability in servitude regime and raising of social awareness. High appreciation for sacrifices that done by those slaves. More serious is that direct response for such changes represented in movement that was known as movement of Decemberians. New liberation movement represents as spontaneous result for such changes.

Vissarion_Grigorievich_Belinsky1

What is literature? What distinctiveness about it? Belinsky did not pose such questions? But he preferred directly to discuss history to examine the writings of poets and literayians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in an attempt to draw new path leads to the Excellency after decades of imitation. Belinsky who was influenced by haigelian philosophy in the first years of his youth. He published an article titled with the literary dreams. He preceded his counterparts of critics who offered services in this field but their contributions were very humble. Such contributions did not come up to level of how to rewrite the literary history. The twenty three years old guy was assigned with this mission. The importance of Belinsky criticism is that there is new aspects about literary theatre never existed before in other words the novel and story After Nikolai Gogol show up on Literary theatre in which his literature was described as superficial and fantasy for the modernity of such kind of literature.

The poetry was the tyrant. Even the novel if had existed previously in the works of Nikolai Gogol as it does not overreach its peculiar field relating the noble classes. In other words there is official literature obtaining the old literature maxims and cesarean general system. New literature represented by Gogol and his mate Boykin represents new unprecedented kind, Belinsky , with left tendency to extremism. He had to defend values which Google called for in his literature because they from bases for his moral beliefs to face such assaults especially the ones related the law of??? But how he defends it? To show the new role for the novel and story in literature of boshkin and Google who had to step behind to produce the previous production as perfect and serious then reach the demonstration of boshkin literature and Google and its importance in the new age.

There is an important note should be clarified: 

When Belinsky began to criticise literature that produced pre Pushkin time. He found multiple literary directions and productions did not come up to surface. There was common opinion that there was nothing called Russian literature existed pre Pushkin history but how did we reach that conclusion? This matter is not in need for perfect literary criticism but it should be reviewed from history angle in which it should demonstrate the social statuses, their criticism and literature criticism which was common at that time. Through his criticism for history, Belinsky declared his opinion that was supported by his analyses: there is no Russian literature at all pre grand Russian figure Alexander Pushkin era. The defects of absence for this literature was due the nature of Russian society formation which was not formed in a civil ways and nationally as well to be able to present artistic giving emerged from its self and its identity.

Belinsky did not survive long to watch the two polars that occupied the general literary scene in the midth of nineteenth century : Tolstoy and destovosky but he died and never a word was mentioned towards Tolestoy. I will induce the opinion of belinsky if he was prolonged just few years. As said previously in the introduction. Belinsky approved of the novel of the Poor for destovosky . In other words it bears the expressions of encouragement for author of the Poor. If the critic witnessed what the author of the poor. Tolestoy will raise from his name to show up the psychoanalysis and will occupy strong literary position . He will use his pen as bitter critic. Definitely he will send a message to the author of the poor. I believed from my point of view that he sing because Tolestoy  represents another jump for Belinsky ideas. So the idea of popular spirit for Belinsky in which Tolestoy found general intellectual frame much deeper by publishing it in his famous book what the Arts is?.

Finally The importance of Belinsky and his influence on Russian intellectual l movement can hardly be overestimated. He did not only show the way for literature to become a public force, but also turned to be a teacher and a leader for the young generation of writers.

PROMINENT RUSSIANS : Fyodor Dostoyevsky

The Russian literature is one of enriched literatures around the world where it contributed the history of the art and culture of humanity. It is unique in history of Russia. It reflect very creative works in the life experience for Russian people its philosophy, morals, its ideas and its way of look at the world and the existentialism in the different historic phases. I’m this context, the Russian soil gave to the humanity men of art the most terrific authors whom when you hear of them your whole body chills. From my point of view, no comparative examples to the literary thinking, not only for the genius universal thinking (Dostoyevsky ) regarded as best Russian authors but one of best universal novelists. His output consists of 11 novels, three novellas, 17 short novels and numerous other works. Many literary critics rate him as one of the greatest psychologists in world literature. His 1864 novella Notes from Underground is considered to be one of the first works of existentialist literature. He presented best novels The Brothers Karamazov  and Crime and Punishment and The Idiot. His novels characterized by their penetration in the human self and its hidden depths as it his works regarded as source for inspiration in the contemporary literature. Dostoyevsky came on top of grand figures list in domain of the universal novel, maybe some don’t like to read but there is no one who could diminish his value or his contributions as one of most important universal novelists If is wasn’t one of important authors across all ages, so reading for his works is regarded as cultural imposition if we could say that. Every reader should read any of his works, if it could be all of them.
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I have analyzed intellectually for best five novels written by him. I will be narrating every single novel. I have some strange feelings. My pen shivers, my mind signs, my thought is distracted. 
1The novel of The Brothers Karamazov is a unique and passionate written in the 19ths century in Russia. This work of art tackles very sensitive and tabooed issues as the ethical debates of god, free will and morality. It is a kind of drama distinguished by spirituality discussed very important issues as faith, doubt and reason placed against a contemporary Russia .The Brothers Karamazov A novel of Karamazov brothers was published in magazine of the Russian messenger ” 1879, 1880 and released  independently in 1880. Dostoevsky gives us in Karamazov  brothers a summary of his literature and thought, as we find a conflict that we saw in ” Satan” as we find the paradox we saw in the teenager, we find in it a competition among the rivals as we saw it in ” the idiot “. The referred novels treated a lot of human issues as bringing up the children, family ties and the relationship between the church and state and also what the responsibility of each one of us towards the others. Karamzouf brothers is just a small realm of Dostoyevsky but this world has now owned the transparency, cleaners and beauty of style that Dostoyevsky had never achieved it before. As for am aghwar where he landed, they are al aghwar itself and its depth.
2Crime and Punishment: is a psychological study of a man who explored the limits of crime. Dostoevsky shows what really happens when a man commits a crime.This above novel is regarded as his most famous works as it treats the crime and punishment for a fatal and contemporary issue and its relations to moral and social issues. The issue that aroused Dostoyevsky to discuss at the time when he himself spent in one of the custody bars where he was detained in the charge with political charges and lives among prisoners. He knew how they live and what they suffer. The plot is centered on the murder of the college guy the talented Raskolnikovtha that  committed against the old nanny and its brother and the psychological causes behind the crime .The soul has its own way of working and Dostoevsky shows that starkly, with utter honesty.

3-The Idiot: The novel of the idiot is regarded as one of most important works for Deskovosky. It is regarded as most important in Russian literature. The novel treated the story of Myshkin . This prince who was in convalescence trip in Switzerland telling his coming back to Russia after he was almost well. The novel takes you to realms of perfect man which is imaged and expressed as the Russian Jesus. This man whom he found in his pains as purification for him. This perfect man who couldn’t lie nor deceive who tried to make all the people around him happy either they are his friends or enemies. This pure soul which bears this fact. Can he live amid this society which is full of evil and hatred. This is what the novel talked about.The Idiot is a remarkable literary feat; a true accomplishment. It not only shows and represents true human complexity, but it births it, both in the inner workings of its passionate characters, and in the overall story.

4- the Gambler Deskovosky: presented in this novel a description for the gambler’ feelings and his indulgence as he becomes able to leave the gambling otherwise the game is up or lose each penny in his pocket. Destovosvy presented the character of gambler as cursed one but he could image him as some kind of fabulous or the running behind the subconscious or the challenge for circumstances. Desovokfy images as his usual in his novels the depths of his character sides. Alexey Ivanovitch who loved Polina the cruel subjected to her and her caprice and said that the humiliation and fall have great pleasure .
5 –  The House of the Dead   The novel is not just as its previous ones. It went around the memories of author and his contemplations which he derived from the period he spent in his exile in Siberia and execution sentence he received and then reduced to the hard labor, his life in prison and prisoners lives, their tradition, their treatment with prisoner who belonged to noble origins. It is believed that most of novels characters are real met by the writer in jail. They are considered as mix between the novel and memoirs writing. It is considered as best of works by the author and obtained the acknowledgment of readers. haunting and remarkable work filled with wonder and resignation, The House of the Dead ranks among the Russian novelist’s greatest masterpieces. Of this powerful autobiographical novel, Tolstoy wrote, “I know no better book in all modern literature.”
 

6-The Eternal Husband  : that was first published in 1870 in Zarya magazine .    Dostoyevsky talked about a birth of this work in a message sent to the poet Apollon Maykov as he said: “I spent three months to write it, I filled eleven manuscripts that belonged to the printer house at least so you can imagine any hard labor imposed on the prisoners which I had done it. Particularly I hated this nasty story from the beginning. I could have written maximum three block notes but more details emerged from themselves so I write eleven block notes. The theme of story is relating a family consists of a couple and a lover, which is triple family as per the modern terminology that inserted by the psychoanalysis. But the creativity of desokovsky did not only precede the psychoanalysis only but imaging that situation which has become known, imaging has artistic dimensions which has become known.To conclude The Eternal Husband  is sterling Dostoevsky  a collection of emotional power and uncompromising insight into the human condition.

 

If writers are requested to write with their own blood to equal the works of Dostoyevsky  . This is not enough, He is god of novel.I loved the novels of Germany literature deeply but novels of Dostoevsky  penetrating the psychological depths and hardly addressing the pysch depth. What desovoky wrote consiered as sacred from Heaven.

Written by:  Magdy Raouf

PROMINENT RUSSIANS Ivan Bunin

 My love for this great author cannot be said in words. I don’t find words expressing my admiration for all topics of Russian literature that represent the pure spirit for mind and thinking. Ivan Bunin He is considered one of greatest poets and authors in the classic Russian literature and one of most known writer who wrote short story after Chekhov and close to Pushkin in his literature. He was awarded with Nobel for literature in 1933. He is first Russian author obtaining that award. Bunin’s first major award – the Pushkin’s prize for Listopad and the Song of Hiawatha – came in 1903. By then Bunin had undergone a major transition from poetry to writing short stories, which was seen by many as a wrong move, including most notably, Vladimir Nabokov, who held Bunin’s poetry in very high esteem, while his prose less so .He was known for his fondness of Russian nature and his singing of it in a manner distincted him from all Russian thinkers where his connection to fields and peasants pains in his novelist and storytelling works despite of descending from noble aristocratic family.

   The path of creation had been extended to around 70 years by this man. Whereas his first poems were published in the mid of eighties of the 19ths century. His artistic creation was distinguished by wide horizons and deep look. As it became very close to his heart and mind in all ages and places, the humanity principles generally regarding the goodness as beauty and justice. There was no probably an identical writer could sense highly and assimilate his consciousness by himself that far epochs before date – Russia, east and west. That helped produce showing his talents of continuing travelling around the world and through his readiness to travel to the middle east to do the pilgrimage in some way to the sacred territories. Bunin  studied and learnt the bible and Quran and acquainted with old east related studies of Egypt.
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a, l, m it is secret of secrets  which told his good reading for Quran and his quoting from it. After he returned Russia, he published stories where by he told about his impressions about the East as what said in “the shade of bird” that through it he was awarded with Pushkin for the second time in 1 1909. Bunin  founded a literary idea in Russia in the first quarter of 20ths century. Moreover, he emigrated to France in 1918 due to his disagreement with Belscivc and lived there until he died in 1953. The Soviet authorities did not pay attention to any of his works except after the death of Stalin in the mid of fiftieth when his works published in the Soviet union. Although he remained in France and his capability to speak fluent French, Buninnever wrote something in French but on the contrary he hold on to his Russian language and his love for his nation believing that the writer should write in his own language only.

About the village, it should be, about the people,” said Kuzma. “I mean, you say it yourself: Russia, Russia…”
“And isn’t Drynose the people, Russia? The whole of it’s a village, get that into your head once and for all!”

Truly, the novel of (the village ) dazzled me and crushed my heart from the first line I had read. I am going to analyze in a thinking way the themes of the novel from the point of view of me that novel of bonin (the village ) raised a very notable controversies which published in 1910 – at the level of literary classes. Bunin  began to be known in and outside of Russia. A beginning of publishing for the collection of novels and other stories which imaged the Russian spirit and its lighting and gloom foundations even the tragic ones at most times as per his saying. MAXIM  wrote about novel that any other writer did not tackle the issue of village with such profundity and historic  Originality. Bunin  treated widely life of Russian people that is relating to his historic and national issues and the issues that are most important at the times of war and revolution.
This novel is regarded as embodiment for a place has a life looked like who lived in as humans. The protagonist is on verge of novel at a one time and central at another time until the all novels characters avoided suddenly the role of the protagonist as the novel (the village ) hardly devoided of main character could be a hero for the novel as events plotted in the novel and serialized based on the narrative structure and artistic structure for the novel.. ponin tried in his novel to convey a sense of realism as it containing images and sense of objective life where those villagers led As the imaging conveyed by writer on life of village an honest imaging based upon its realism preferring between illusion and fact based on hypothesis we could reach it while reading.. Bunin  remained in journey of searching for answers mattered the humans generally around the meaning of life and meaning of mutual relationship between the existential elements generally and the aim beyond creating of man.

In novel of Bunin  , writer should show the desire of people among the people of villages endeavoring continuously behind the truth, goodness and beauty. The settings of the novel are the Russian village where the events being plotted (Durnovka) to image the novel through both characters of Tikhon I and Kuzma, and about the way which both felt his existence in village and the ways through he examined the village with nature and people in this small village. The novel of village gave the opportunity to follow all the changes of social circumstances that occurred in the village as novel discussed desire of Russian society. Novel is full of daily details for people lived with nature that Bunin did not avoid upon any partial detail in its imaging .Which all the people of the village seek to achieve it. Hence the novel discussed the desires of the Russian society. The novel is full of details for people led every day life complement with nature which Bunin did not dare to avoid it in anyway this wrenching novel is a triumph of bitter realism.shot through with the author’s classical style and precision of language.. this wrenching novel is a triumph of bitter realism.shot through with the author’s classical style and precision of language.

To have the summary, to show some of the glimpses and poem analysis of ponin who astonished me and I am totally embarrassed that I will make it very evident in few lines regarding ponin influences by Islamic movements :
Poems of pinion (it was based upon deep personal suffering apart from the issue. He was able to write in the same day about heaven’s of Russian north, deniber river banks, ok a river, sichelle churches and silan forests. In his dozens of poems we find the jealous orthodox Christian who was proud of his noble Russian origins and he could quote the full character of the Muslim, the wandering Darwish and the pilgrim to sacrednes And at one time, transforming into singer signing of goodness in Harlem atmospheres but at other times, transforming into witness the creation of world by Allah. Moreover, an eye-witness of the great judgement day Bunin witnessed different sides of Islamic doctrine and Islamic life.

 

Written by:  Magdy Raouf

 

PROMINENT RUSSIANS : Leo Tolstoy

Russian literature is regarded as most important literary works, Russian authors works collaborated immensely to develop the Russian literature and the universal as well at that time. It is very enriched with novels, poetry and theatrical writings competing the English literature which is regarded as most universal literatures. Numerous great figures of Russian literature who elevated the level of Russian culture greatly especially in the nineteenth and 21ths century one of huge symbols of Russian literature who represented strong bridge for Russian literary movement and the intellectual philosophical movements and the moral one as well. I am unable to describe his words. My speech is a drop in deep ocean the great author (Leo Tolstoy) .

Leo Tolstoy  He is one of greatest Russian authors and regarded as one of figures in Russian literature in the 19ths century. He was known for writing the novels and fascinating short stories. He enriched the Russian and universal literatures via his works. He was believed that he was much influenced by Arabic literature especially during his childhood. Leo Tolstoy was novelist, social worker, peace caller, morals thinker and effective member in Tolstoy family. His most famous works “War and Peace” and “Anna Karenina” both placed on top of realistic literature. They give realistic images for Russian life at that time As moral philosopher, he embraced the ideas of peaceful resistance against the violence actions. This was encompassed in book of “Allah kingdom inside you” that work affected the celebrities of 19ths century as Mahatma Ghandi and Martin Luther for their struggling which distinguished by the policy of peaceful resistance that was anti -violence. He discussed in his writings religious and moral topics. He joined the university of Kazan (Volga region) Federal University in 1844 but he did not like the manner of studying there and he left it to practice the free businesses in 1847. He began to cultivate himself and undertake to write. Following his retirement from military conscription, he travelled to western Europe and admired the manners of studying there. When he went back to his home town, he began to implement the progressive pedagogical theories that he learned by opening up private school for farmers’ sons and also founded learning magazine called Yasnia in which he explained his ideas of pedagogy by publishing them among people.

Tolstoy-List-MainIn the following lines we will have a look upon his best works of long epic novels, and also the short stories which imaged the Russian community where he grew up and emerged from accounts not novelist due to his spirit crisis and subsequent awakening .

 1Anna Karenina : a romantic novel published for the first time in 1877, its happening was going around a woman every beautiful called Anna Karenina, married from man called Alexei Karenin who was a minister twenty years older than her. She gave birth to a baby. Her husband was always busy. She had met a man called from sky whom be fell in love with, she also gave birth to a girl called Rana. She had a severe conflict between staying with her husband and her son because she was much connected with him and her lover where the society began to outcast her. She has become alone especially after she was deserted by Count Vronsky. who got married from other woman.I had no any previously opportunity to acquaint with the Russian literature. I was terribly attracted to the theme of a story of a woman who kills herself for love. Both chapters pushing Anna to end her life up by throwing herself under the wheels of train. She detested the lack of truth and love in everyone in her entourage .The depth and humanity of her torment remains one of the most moving things I’ve ever read ..Tolstoy himself suffered from the torture of love. Both he and his wife agreed to disclose their inner thoughts, read each other’s diaries, hold nothing back, in the attempt to achieve an unadulterated connection. But in the end, like Anna, he couldn’t make the world a coherent whole through personal attachment. He left his home, wandering from place to place, seeking intimacy not with a woman, but with all things and all time.

2War and peace: Everyone who is even remotely interested in fiction has heard of War and Peace; it is one of the most famous works of literature in history and generally considered to be an absolute masterpiece. This book has reached an almost mythical status to the point where it has become an untouchable entry in the Western canon. The Big One. This is it.a novel published for first time in 1869, is regarded as an epic from most important works of literature where some considered it the best the writer achieved. The novel deserved the first rank as best 100 book through the magazine of Newsweek in 2009, the novel took place at the time of Napoleon Bonaparte in the nineteenth century after his withdrawal from the Russian territory and the victory of Alexander the first, its happenings went around five families belonged to the Aristocratic class where they lived in tragedy subsequent to Napoleon occupation to Russia in 1812. He chose his characters in the novel between the reality and fiction. Tolstoy discussed in his novel the luxurious life where the Nobels in Russia lived at that time. In conclusion, reading War and Peace means studying what it means to be alive on this planet. It covers love, war, religion, family, class, economics, philosophy… This book is not just about this particular time and place; it attempts to grasp the nature of history itself.

3 The Death of Ivan Ilych:short novel published for first time in 1886, in which Tolstoy the trivial life where the middle classes lived through a story of employee life had many successful social and familial relationships but unfortunately he was attacked by the disease where he became on the verge of death finding out how his life was superficial through running after the job ambitions, money and the fragile social relationships.

4 Hadji Murat : realistic novel titled in Russian Хаджи-Мурат [Khadzhi-Murat]), was first published in 1910, it was last work achieved by Tolstoy, its happenings went around the rebellious leader hadgi from Caucasian who got separated from the Emam Am Shamel to ally with his Russian enemies to take revenge of Shamel, saving his family from him. He was known for courage, good morals and his commitment to principles that he obtained the admiration and respect of so many of Russian people. It is believed that novel characters are real and the events going around the conflict between Chichian and Russians.

5 Resurrection :  a novel published firstly in 1900, its happening went around a noble guy from Russia called Dmitry Evan, he lived science devoted to help others even if that cost him his life but subsequent to joining the military life, his character had changed. He became selfish and very material person. This appeared when he used his relation to Catherine who resided with his aunt where they were playing together when they were young. But when returning from military conscription he deceived her and left her an envelope attached with money in return for her staying with him one night. He shocked the girl with his extreme transformation. She was involved in murder before driving in prison standing in a cell bar in front of him in the courtyard yet he was the cause behind her driving to jail. It is mentioned that this novel written by Tolstoy in his late years after suffering from conscience torture when he seduced a girl who was serving at his home when he was young and gave her up till she passed away.


6 Sevastopol Stories a group of stories published for the first time in 1855, whereby he registered his experiences during the siege of Sebastopol city in the island of karma between 1854-1855 in which the author deal with the glorious championships that the Russian soldiers achieved during the war.
7The Cossacks : a short story firstly published in 1863, discussed a life of guy went to Cossack fell in love with Cossack girl suffering from inner conflict inside him between indulging in love or self denial Cossacks is short story told about life of Nobel “Dimitri Olin” to whom Tolstoy compared himself. He joined the army after liberating himself from his illusions of his extravagant life. This novel is quite regarded as autobiography as its roots based on life and military experiences for its Russian author around the subsequent stages of Cossasian war but it is fictional story treated with the aristocratic Russian who fell in love with one of Coosack girls whom had a lot of the similar character compared with “Anna Karenina ” In this novel, Tolstoy was genius in describing simple life of Cossacks and the tiring simultaneously for a person accustomed to living a luxurious life in which the author imaged aspects of luxury in Russia in the beginning of the novel, then he moved to describe the mountains, the wonderful nature and dangerous life there. In case if you want to acquaint with knowing people’s life and customs, I recommend Reading for Tolstoy generally and this novel particularly.
 I would like to conclude by saying that the Russian literature will remain intellectual and civilized mirror for the entire world. It is deep and solid bridge as it is a gift from the heaven to humanity to set the behavior and the moral principles for the humanity. When I die I want to accompanied with encyclopedias and volumes of Russian literature. When I read his works my soul remains haunting me in my body and get to life once again.
Written by:  Magdy Raouf

 

PROMINENT RUSSIANS : Anton Chekhov

Anton Chekhov is considered as one of the great figures of the Russian literature besides Leo Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky and others. Till present Chekhov regards as the most influential writers all over the world in the field of short story. This was definitely beside the abundant theatrical production. His plays had great effect in enriching the Russian and universal literature in 20ths century. So many of contemporary writers had been pupiled at his hand. His writings distinguished by the mood of theatre. He always focused on demonstrating the inner psychology of characters whom he wrote either in his short stories or his plays.

If Anton Chekhov  ((1860 – 1904)) were famous for his pioneer position in short story are and traditional plays, he was also realistic drama pioneer till he became the only one who occupied the second rank following Shakespeare as fame and his texts shows repetition but he opened new horizons for the art of Vaudeville (one act plays). Vaudeville is theatrical show, sarcastic and delirious aiming at criticizing the social political economic status, entertainment harmonised with light folklore ballads in which you can find much more puns never empty from dances .Anton Chekhov composed eleven plays in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the beginning of century which is ( On the Road) (On the Harmful Effects of Tobacco) (A Marriage Proposal )(Swan Song )  (The Bear)  (The Wedding) was not completed and published posthumously in 1914. This play occupied important position in history of Russian theatre, it added in developing traditions and heritage the art of vaudeville which not only targeted the fun or sarcasm but it got over all restrictions for Chekhov . That was evident in subjects tackled by Anton Chekhov who could remove the barriers between the comedy of humour and the drama of scene .

If Vaudeville  previously depended on sarcasm and entertainment upon some social phenomena, the interest only in comedy of situation, despite this Chekhov  had gone far and showed great interest in the comedy of character. His protagonists enjoyed features traits related in terms of very peculiar quality very distinguished with human realism.

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As his one-act plays were free from lyrical intervals, they retained the structural progress for the simple subject and the hastened happenings where the end comes unexpected as laying  through that new rules. As it combined between the aesthetic number of them as vitality, pleasure, sadness and the fond of psychological realism

The play of ( On the Road ) consists of dramatic scene in one cat and regarded at the same time a modification for short story written by Chekhov  under the title of “the Autumn” in 1883, the play was rejected by the censorship. The play tackles an incident took place at night in a pub on public road in a southern district in Ceaserian Russia where so many passers were going there as vagabonds, strangers to get warm in winter or as a shelter. Its protagonist one of penniless nobles who cried and begged the pub owner to give him a mere goblet of wine then it turned out during the talking that he was not drunken or alcoholic but he was nobel guy full of vitality enjoyed love and respect of others. He was led unconsciously to drink wine to face what he suffered from as loss and severe distresses due to his wife elopement in the wedding day.

As for play of (Swan Song)  it is derived from short story by the author titled with “Kalchas  posing a question : what is concept of life? the ordinary man tortured by love at the young age ended up suffering from pain In the aging days. In play, protagonist woke up (Vasili Svietlovidoff) while he was heart broken, handsomeless features got sixty eight years old never cared by anyone, left behind by all, finding out the painful truth that the Elite classes regarded the profession of acting a trivial thing and the actor was just a clown.In this one-act play,Anton Chekhov presents his keen observation of the human vanities and weaknesses.He creates the enduring pictures of the absurdities of life and speech in the masterful portrayal of Svetlovidov.The empty stage represents a great absurdity.

A play of (On the Harmful Effects of Tobacco)) represents the suffering of the intellectual man in a sarcastic from in which the writer revealed the immoral voices that spread within the family. The smoker protagonist delivered a speech ((On the Harmful Effects of Tobacco) his exterior appearance conveyed that he was contended but he was in fact a miserable suffering from the bad circumstances of the family. He released a pathetic scream not only for his living conditions but also as a human. The hero was in nervous mood married from a woman enjoyed a strong character who keeps a music school and a boarding school for girls. the writer cared of the psychological side penetrating the inner world of the character and its most apparent emotions via monologue. Play began with humour manner ending up with drama revealed the crisis of protagonist again the daily issues that exhausted him and drove him to the fall.

His last stories was “the bride” as for his last plays were “ The Cherry Orchard ” His works exceeded the hundreds of works some of them are very short, others are long in which Henry who is regarded as the best of those who wrote the autobiography of Chekhov  and others of Russian literature pioneers among them Tolstoy and Dostoevsky  that these works as a while from an unprecedented panorama in Russian life. All the social classes in Russian society beginning from the peasant to the priest passing by the university professor, from the student to merchant, all of them find a space for them in this human comedy. Reading of Chekhov  and his plays is compared to a trip via quick eddy boarding the reader all over Russia in the late of nineteenth century accompanied with pure thinking related evidence.

There is an important remark which is that Anton Chekhov burdened himself with laying (Vaudeville art) as an original Russian art through connecting the comedy to drama. Comedy is able to satire life tragic differences and handling simple subjects don’t tackle the intrigues and schemes. As he was also interested in the symbolic meaning of accurate details which helped embody the various phenomena. Moreover, the music filled the inner world for his plays characters

 

Written by:  Magdy Raouf

PROMINENT RUSSIANS : Maxim Gorky

We read the literature for many reasons and the most important of these reasons revealing of the human self and truth of Russian literature which is regarded as valuable treasures which discovers the secrets of human psych. The Russian author Maxim Gorky  presented peculiar creations vivid with the respect for man toned with honest life without deception nor suppression.

The all fully know the severe psychological torment and the difficult that Maxim had been through who was in seclusion since his childhood because the pride, ousting and the class distinction which left nothing but his desire to grant creation The path of this author was not smooth nor decorated with roses. He had been through dangerous challenges but he won in the end. He tried to commit suicide at the age of 19 in the beginning of his artistic career telling us how much desperate and disappointed he had been but amid all those negative emotions, his faith helped him overcome the bad luck which accompanied him since he was young As for me as a reader, his writings don’t hurt me psychologically where there is screaming, trivial panic nor noisy romance against the gate of the social realism.

The all agree with me at this opinion equally. At present grand authors still imitating him difficultly dazzled by his proletariat class preservation defending that struggling for poor classes honestly. It will remain according to a lot of people opinion among enjoyable elite never hesitates not bows in less stardom path.

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Maxim Gorky  (1936-1868) this great literature man, theatrical, political activist, the Russian Marxist and the founder of the socialist realistic school in literature which embodied the approach of Marxism in literature in which he believes literature is based on the economic activity in its form, growing and its development and it affected upon society with its strength so it should be employed in the social service So gourki remained devoted to Marxism theory towards the class distinction conflicts.
His pen penetrated subsequent to Makar teshourda his story which published in 1892 to witness afterwards a handful of his works that brought him fame and became after Leo Tolstoy passing away Russia leading writer and that was before he passed away in June 1936 in farm of Gorky  one of Russia province’s Gorky wrote continuously demonstrating the literature as beautifying practices would change his social fact and this is what we have found out in some of his novels as the most famous one was (Mother ) and his play as (The Lower Depths)
(World workers unite)
This famous sentence of statement bears the spirit and basic idea for the novel (mother ) for Maxim . In this novel, Maxim did not write about labourers in particular, he was writing describing himself while indulging in the problems of workers. He described his grandma by her embodiment for character of mother and what she represents as a mother releasing revolutionary spirit able to make life. His wrote about his grandpa in his embodiment for character of Mikhail flasof. Despite screams and curses of Maxim in his thirtie as it did not bear a vision towards the workers and improving their living standard and also treating the social problems that have political and economic background.
At my profound reading for this novel (Mother) for first time in the universal literature, panoramic painting tells of workers fighting against the suppressing regime for brighter life free from any oppression or corruption. Novel is also tackling the political awareness stimulation at the working class, the front masses of people its strong back to fight against the bourgeoisie class and the struggling to attain the socialist revolution goals. Novel formed in terms of depth of revolutionist rebellion a phenomena considered as unprecedented in the history of universal literature and also founded the sect of socialist realism. No wonder I have found the fighting against cesarean authorities which hurried to confiscate the copies by tearing them out and which have not been released except 1917.     Maxim Gorky could in his novel reveal the corrupted regime of caesar that based on oppression through the talking about Mikhail falsify with beautiful style, the drunkard worker the frightening who has got the dense hair, evil eyes and the gloom look who lived amid Labouring class the all fear it because of its problems and its excessive triviality.
the novel (mother )  is considered a turning-point in the history of Russian literature. In the words of perhaps the greatest thinker and politic figure of the 20th century, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin “It is a book of the utmost importance; many workers, who have joined the revolutionary movement impulsively, without properly understanding why, will begin to comprehend after reading Mother”.
Finally, Maxim is regarded as founder of Soviet literature and Pioneer of socialist realism and has great effect upon writers who were contemporary to him not only in Russia literature but also all over the world. Despite the disintegration of Soviet union, name of gurki is still compared to respect and appreciation. His theatrical works obtained the interest and attention of the audiences and act as strong bridge for universal literature.
Written by: Magdy Raouf

Prominent Russians: Leonid Andreyev

This great writer Leonid Andreyev occupied (1871-1919) peculiar position in the history of Russian literature and regarded as most outstanding Russian pioneer – writers in the first two decades of the twentieth century in addition to being Russian expressionist school founder.

His fame reached its peak after he had published a story tilted with “once upon a time‘ in the magazine of “Russian life” in 1901.
Moreover, Leonid Andreyev  wrote many outstanding plays distinguished by a great deal of seriousness and the originality simultaneously. His works were translated throughout his lifetime into the most important European languages. His works obtained the interest of both critics and readers as wonderful literary works. Most works of Leonid Andreyev  as stories and plays distinguished by pessimism. Also a handful of his works treat many issues as loneliness and human suffering.
His most famous short story “The Red Laugh ” in (1904) finding out the horror and tragedies of war. As for his novel “The Seven Who Were Hanged ) in 1908, demonstrating feelings of five revolutionists and two of murderers while waiting for the sentence of execution. As for his most acclaimed and popular plays that they are “The Life of Man ” in 1906 which tackled the action of slabbing. In 1915, many of his stories were turned into films in Russia and in America (Hollywood ). Moreover, his plays are being performed till present in Russia and some of European countries. Truly there is a book should be highlighted by me by demonstrating and analyzing his ideas.

 

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Whatever I write or express. I wouldn’t be able to express how much fond I am of this huge fox. The giant of intellect. I will begin to explain the book of the craziness.This book contains four stories written by Leonid Andreyev treated the oppression of fact and strikes of depression which he was suffering from beginning from his life passing by the failures of revolution against Caesar then the Japanese Russian war in which Russian were defeated that led to intensive depression and pessimism suffered by Andrea who was transformed from revolutionist against Caesar and his reign to revolutionist against the war itself as he suffered during that period severely in which he wrote most of his greatest stories as (The Red Laugh )

The first story is:

This story tells of the Russian revolution period at the end of nineteenth century where oppression reached its peak and the country became a terrorist gang murders and executes all its opposers. Andref was at the time the most active rebels against the country and its rule. He wrote this story discussing the mad judgements which were consecutively released against revolution supporters. We believe this story is an attempt to assassinate done by five young people their attempts were abolished that led to sentencing them to immediate execution. The story here tells about the emotions of the sentenced to execution in a good psychological analytical manner imaging the madness and despair and sometimes the indifference towards the execution sentence.

the second story is :

The story of The Red Laugh )is about the story of the war itself, story of madness, depression and pessimism where the matter becomes ordinary. When you hear of falling of the thousands of victims in one battle where the hell becomes fact.

the third story is :

The story is about the madness – the ability of man to make of himself a mad optionally leading him to depths of madness. The bet that protagonist of this story was to be protected by madness which is to practice the madness to get out of his predicament where he bears grudge and intentions to kill his friend as actually murders and alleged that he is mad and then confess. But is this everything!!!
The fourth story :

this occurred: symbolic story tells of revolution done by people lived for hundreds of years under dictator reign where concept of liberty was like the aged people anecdotes.Liberty was not existing because the all people were slaves shouting day and night calling Live long the king. Revolution eventually broke out in the epoch of the king twentieth, the one who was coming from kings dynasty. Revolution broke out and people entered into the castle of king, some of them had gone crazy never believed the liberty and died of his?? The others suicides and never imagined the fall of the royal reign, some called live long king the twentieth one. King had been executed and people were joiced danced and called for freedom.

The Russian writer Leonid Andreyev is pessimistic thinker narrating with shocking realism (the book of craziness ) his tragic scenes while showing some of busy features with the concrete evil related to madness from his meanings and structure. He also demonstrated the estimation of societies sinking, what made them lose their consciousness, its wisdom, its balance, morals and its mind till what they ended up to. The full madness always endeavors to get over the borders of nations leading to universe destruction and human mortality due to mad man crimes who called for reason and civilization and who also lost his control over his temper to extent of being vulnerable to murder lust which it eradicated all what he owned from reason and awareness that looks like the devilish game between a cat and a art. One of his sayings (Who I am, mad formulates his action or sane maddening himself )

Panic haunted the writer due to what the world ended up to nowadays which is distinguished by lying, chaos, racism, self interests, conflicts, illiteracy, hypocrisy, grudge, inverting the business interest along with its marriage to corruption in aspects bearing a lot of loss for this frightening world which gave up its principles and morals where vices of grudge, violence, greed and evil spreaded. This definitely led to meanness, material and moral vices, the anti order, judging with instincts and the barbarian tendencies which released the worrisome and horror especially in the Arab countries:one of his sayings(Death is shattered in this mad world where the ghosts and puppets haunt. It has lost its great meaning and has become mechanically frightening. Man has ended in this world).

Stories influenced me with great effects upon me as the Russian literature which is freedom, suffering, pains, survival, pride, honor, honesty, faith and dignity. It is soul of life.

Written by: Magdy Raouf

The genius of Russian: Valery Bryusov

The poet ( Vladyslav Khodasevich) once said about (Valery Yakovlevich Bryusov), I think “He believed himself to be the captain of a literary ship.” Bryusov is considered to be one of Russian symbolism founders. He was poet, intellectual, multilingual and a publisher. Maxim Gorky called Bryusov the most accurate thinking from all Russian authors at his time. Bryusov was leader of Russian symbolism during the cultural renaissance that was known by the silver age which witnessed the boom of writers as Konstantin Balmont, Aleksandr Blok, Vyacheslav Ivanov, Andrey Bely, Dmitry Merezhkovsky  and others. Collection of Bryusov of poetry “Venok” (“The Wreath”) is among highest achievements in the Russian literature Bryusov  was born in Moscow, Russia. His grandpa was a poet named Aleksandr Bakulin. He was wealthy merchant whom his poems and stories were published. Bryusov grew up with learning three languages as French, Deutsche and surely the mother tongue the Russian. He received a peculiar education from 1885 to 1893. He studied in sports halls and collaborated in many of school plays. At that time, Bryusov was having a sentimental relationship with every beautiful young woman Elena Kraskova. His sudden death in 1893 caused him psychological and emotional shock so he tried to get over this by publishing a book titled with The Decadents (End of a Century).and at the same time, he sent a message to Paul Verlaine the French actor for symbolism.
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Bryusov regarded himself as founder of symbolism in Russia. Symbolism was genuinely a French and Belgian movement in the poetry and the other arts. Symbol itself derived from the critic Jean Moréas who formulated it for discrimination among symbols of the disintegrated movement that is related to literature and arts. Symbols believed that art should be for selecting up much more of the absolute truths which cannot be achieved directly. So they were written metaphorically and with excessive talent where it give images and particular things that have symbolic meaning.
Valery Bryusov was finally disappointed against the Soviet beliefs after it witnessed the fast deterioration for the culture at the time of communist reign.
Bryusov opposed Lenin indirectly since 1900 and noted that revolution of October caused the destruction and failed to create better world, in return both of Lenin and Bryusov  were described as“poet-anarchist.””
During 1924-1920, when many of his friends immigrated that led Bryusov to write that he was torn apart among his naive hopes in the just revolution and the Russian revolution which caused severe damages and disasters but it had not kept its word in regard to the social justice. Tyrant dictator drama and the good reality of communism brought depression to Bryusov end up with suffering from dangerous disease.
He was found dead of lungs bronchitis at the age of 50 in his apartment in Moscow then put in grave of novodevichi in Moscow. His wife Zhanna Bryusova of Czech origins all his possessions, his library, his pictures and his manuscripts for years on the hope of reviving the old home. Finally, it was transformed into museum of silver age which is still expanding with placing plans for organizing the different exhibitions with opening the hall of lectures and holding musical cinverts.

The Fierce Birds

Fierce birds, with feathers made of pure fire,
Flew above the entrance into God’s Empire.
The inflamed reflections reached the marble whiteness,
And the strangers vanished in the waters’ vastness.

But, on the virgin marble of the steps of the entrance,
Somewhat ever reddened by unnatural radiance,
And by gates and arches, everlasting, purest…
Angels drank from goblets of mysterious lures.

“When Curtains Of House Fall…”

When curtains of a house fall down,

And the lamps’ mitigating light
Makes peaceful all shadows around,
I hear the song of delight.

I needn’t the astonishing glow,
The beauty and greatness of the sky.
A curtain, fall down, fall low!
The world, go out and fly!

I have here my books — lines and letters,
And here my meter plays…
And I know the sweet of the fetters
In the depths of the prisons-caves!

Written by: Magdy Raouf
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